Monday, December 28, 2009

Dec 28: Martyrdom of the Two Youngest Sahibjadey

This is taken from

As the year approaches the end, on December 28 every year, the global world Sikh community commemorate the martyrdom of three of their most loved figures of the Guru household. On this darkest of days, their youngest hero and bravest comrade of Sikhism, Sahibzada Fateh Singh (1699-1705) who was the youngest of Guru Gobind Singh's four sons, Sahibzada Zorawar Singh (1696-1705), his elder brother and Mata Gujar Kaur ji, his grandmother sacrificed their lives for their faith and the right to remain Sikhs.

Gurdwara Fatehgarh Sahib which is situated 5 km north of Sirhind marks the sad site of the execution of the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh at the behest of Wazir Khan of Kunjpura, the faujdar of Sirhind. The three shrines exist within this Gurdwara complex to mark the exact spot where these tragic events were witnessed in 1705.

Baba Fateh Singh with his elder brother, set a precedence in Sikh history (and perhaps also in world history) by becoming the youngest known martyrs to sacrifice their lives for their principles and the right to practice their religion and their faith without coercion or the threat of terror. Even at such a tender age of 6 years, Baba Fateh Singh showed courage, determination and free-will not to be intimidated by the cruel, barbaric and unjust authorities of the time. He showed composure, fearlessness and the renowned trait of unparalleled heroism becoming of the Sikh leadership and was prepared to sacrifice his life but not his faith.

The mind boggles to understand how children of such young age had the guts, courage, bravery and focus to refuse the promise of many lavish gifts and a future of cosy comforts of royalty that were being offered by the Mughals if they abandoned their faith against the other stark option of a brutal, painful and tragic death entombed within a wall of bricks and mortar. The world salutes the supreme sacrifice of these kids of steel who never once - even of a moment considered the easy option and always remained focused on their mission to uphold the principles of God's kingdom and allowed their bodies to be tortured and violated and endured the intense pain of a slow, pain-ridden and certain death.

On the one hand the world witnessed, the supreme sacrifice of the youngest members of the Guru household for the highest ideals of humanity and on the other hand you have the lowly, cruel, cold-blooded and barbaric acts of the mighty, heartless and immoral rulers of a huge nation. May the world reflect on this grim and gutless episode in the history of humanity and learn from it the values of life and the way to uphold these values and the dangers posed by an uncontrolled and immoral mind.

On 26 December 1705, Baba Fateh Singh ji was cruelly and mercilessly martyred at Sirhind along with his elder brother, Zorawar Singh. He is probably the youngest recorded martyr in history who knowingly and consciously laid down his life at the very tender age of 6 years. Sahibzada Fateh Singh and his older brother, Sahibzada Zorawar Singh are among the most hallowed martyrs in Sikhism.

As soon as the two Sahibzadas attained martyrdom, Mata Gujri ji, who was sitting in meditation in the tower, breathed her last. The messenger who came with the news of the martyrdom of the Sahibzade found that Mata-Ji had already attained salvation. There was great commotion in the town of Sirhind. Everyone was furious at the atrocious crime. They were unanimous in their view that this heinous act would herald the doomsday of the Mughal Empire. They admired the courage and steadfastness of the brave sons of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji and remarked, "What determination at such a young age! They did not budge an inch from their position in spite of several allurements by the Nawab and Qazi."

The same evening Dewan Todar Mal, a jeweller reached Nawab Wazir Khan's court for permission to cremate the dead bodies of the two Sahibzadas and Mata Gurji. So as to highlight the extreme cruelty of the administration, the Nawab agreed on condition that the dewan paid for the required piece of land by spreading as many Gold coins as would cover the entire spot. The dewan accepted the terms and brought bagfuls of gold coins to satisfy the condition set by the Mughal administration. He marked the site and spread coins on entire piece of land he selected for cremation. The two martyred young sons of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji were cremated with full honours along with their grand mother.

There is no parallel to the martyrdom of such young boys in the annals of human history. Sahibzada Fateh Singh was less than six years old (born 1699) and Sahibzada Zorawar Singh was just over eight (born in 1696). They laid down their lives in December 1705. At such a tender age, they were bricked alive but did not bow before the tyranny and cruelty of the Mughal government. Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji was at the time in the forests of Machhiwara when the news of the martyrdom of his younger sons reached him. On hearing this he pulled out a plant with the tip of his arrow and prophesized that this tragedy will herald the uprooting of Mughal Empire in India. And to the Emperor he wrote in the Zafarnama: "…Even though my four sons were killed, I remain like a coiled snake. What bravery is it to quench a few sparks of life?..... When God is a friend, what can an enemy do, even though he multiplies hundred times? If an enemy practices enmity and hatred a thousand times, he cannot, as long as God is a friend, injure even a hair on one’s head."

Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji addressed his followers and reassured them thus: "Although, four of my sons have joined Waheguru, many thousands of my sons are still alive", meaning that the Guru accepted all Sikhs as his sons and daughters. A wave of anguish gripped the country as the news of the martyrdom of the Sahibzadas spread. After some time the recluse Banda Bairagi came under the influence of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji, and was made a Khalsa as was Banda Singh Bahadar. He undertook the task of dealing with these cruel oppressors and shook the very heart of the Mughal empire. The town of Sirhind was reduced to utter ruins as a consequence of the cruel, uncaring and heartless treatment of the Sahibzade.

The renowned Hindi poet, Maithli Saran Gupta in his well known book Bharat Bharati said: "Whatever their present position, the future of the community whose sons can thus lay down their lives for their faith, is bound to be glorious."

Friday, December 25, 2009

News Article From Sikhnet

Christmas - Walking the Line Between Two Cultures

December 24th, 2009 by Erin Donaghue Source:

To tree or not to tree? It's only one of the many dilemmas county Sikhs are faced with around the holiday season. And for followers of the faith, there seems to be just as many approaches to melding their own traditions with the Santas, reindeer, presents and elves that are pervasive in the communities in which they live.

For Sikh families in the county, many of whom worship at the Guru Gobind Singh Foundation in North Potomac, navigating the holiday season often means celebrating different traditions from multiple cultures — though no one family navigates the cultural divide in quite the same way.

"In the beginning it was like, ‘OK, when in Rome,'" said Burtonsville resident Gagan Narang. Born in India, Narang worships with her family at the Guru Gobind Singh Foundation. Though the family doesn't celebrate Christmas, Narang said that she used to put up a Christmas tree when her children — now 20, 18 and 15 — were young. "It's all the marketing," she added. "There's a lot of pressure on the kids and they want presents, so it's easy to get swayed."

Now that her children are older and have learned more about their cultural heritage, she said, a bit of the pressure has been alleviated. For now, the Christmas tree is sitting in her basement. But she still enjoys giving small gifts around the holidays and attending Christmas parties at the homes of her Christian friends. "Time is too short — why not take every excuse to celebrate?" she said.

The Sikh religion is based on the belief in one God and a strong adherence to equality for all men and women. Sikhs follow the teachings of 10 spiritual teachers, or gurus, who lived from 1469 to 1708. Many Sikh men and women carry the same last name — Singh for men, and Kaur for women — because when the religion was founded in India last names were tell-tale signs of the caste to which a person belonged. Sikhs are known for keeping long hair, and men wear turbans and boys wear head coverings known as patkas.

Sikhs do have several celebrations around this time of year, most notably the birthday celebration of the first guru, Guru Nanak Dev, which fell on Nov. 2 this year. Sikhs will also celebrate the birthday of the 10th guru, Guru Gobind Singh, on Jan. 5. While the celebrations involve singing, reading of the sacred scripture, processions and the sharing of sweets, there isn't too much emphasis on the gift-giving that's typical of Christmas, Narang said.

Some county families celebrate Guru Nanak Dev's birthday and go on to partake in Christmas traditions around the holidays. Harminder Kaur, a Potomac resident, says she puts up a Christmas tree with her children, 9, 15 and 19. "It's just about holiday cheer, and it's nice to have lights in the house," Kaur said. "We don't attach any religious significance to it, and I don't have mistletoe and all that."
Kaur's son, Vikram Mangat, a sophomore at Winston Churchill High School, said that the family tries to give back to those in need around the holidays. They also celebrate with Christian friends, he said. "We go to their house and we eat dinner and show our respect toward their celebration," he said.
Not all county Sikhs, however, put up a Christmas tree around the holidays. "Christmas has a lot of religious meaning, and that's not the religion that we follow," said North Potomac resident Ravi Singh. However, he said his family strings lights on his home to celebrate the birth of Guru Nanak Dev in November, and leaves the lights on until the holiday marking Guru Gobind Singh's birthday in January.

When walking the line between two cultures, there isn't always a clear-cut solution, many say. As the first generation in her family to immigrate to the United States, Narang said she can't fall back on advice from her parents on how to meld holiday traditions. "We are making our mistakes and hopefully doing a few things right in the process," Narang said. "I'm hoping when my kids are all grown up, they'll know what to do.

Wednesday, December 23, 2009

Saka Chamkaur Sahib: Shaheedi Jorh Mela: Dec 21

This was taken from Manvir Singh Khalsa's blog and provides excellent information on the Saka Chamkaur and the martydom of the two older Sahibjadey of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

Today is the commemoration day of "Saka Chamkaur," a unique battle that took place, in which Guru Gobind Singh jee's two elder Sahibzaadey (princes) attained shaheedi (martydom) along with 40 other Singhs. I felt inspired to write this after listening to Dr. Gurdeep Singh jee on radio this morning. The Katha (account) which he gave about the episode of Chamkaur Sahib has been written down and translated by Daas.

Evacuation of Anandpur Sahib
Guru Gobind Singh jee and 400 Sikhs left Sri Anandpur Sahib on the bitter cold and rainy night of December 5 1704 after a prolonged siege by the Mughal and Hindu Hill chieftains’ armies. The Mughals and Hindu Hill chieftains had offered Guru Sahib a safe passage to leave Anandpur Sahib on an oath on the Quran by emperor Aurangzeb and an oath on the cow (which Hindus consider as sacred) by the hill chieftains. However, their oaths were meaningless and they betrayed Guru Sahib.

Separation of the Family (Parivaar Vichhoraa)
In the early hours of the morning at the river Sarsa the Guru and his Sikhs were attacked by the Mughal army under the command of Wazir Khan, breaking their oath to of safe conduct. In the confusion, which followed the attack in the cold and darkness, many Sikhs became Shaheed (martyrs). A group of Singhs fought the armies and kept them back while the rest of the Sikhs, Guru Sahib and Guru Sahib’s family crossed the river in the heat of the battle. Many Sikhs perished in crossing the cold river and got swept away by the current of the river. During the confusion in crossing the River Sarsa, Guru Sahib was separated from his family. Guru jee, his two eldest sons and 40 Sikhs were able to cross the river and were united on the other side. Gurdwara Parivaar Vichhora Sahib is built on the spot where the battle occurred and the Gurus family were separated.

Chamkaur Sahib
On 20 December 1704 Guru Sahib and the 40 Singhs camped in an open space in Ropar. Bhai Budhi Chand who owned a Haveli (open house) in the town of Chamkaur visited Guru Sahib and offered his home and family at the Feet of the Guru. Guru Sahib had once visited the mud-house of Bhai Budhi Chand when returning from Kurekshetr. Guru Sahib and the 40 Singhs moved into house of Bhai Budhi Chand situated on a hill, which became a mud-fort of Guru Sahib.

At Amritvela (early hours of the day before sunrise) Guru Sahib woke up Bhai Sangat Jee. “Wake up Sangat Singh, its time for Aasa Di Vaar. Let’s do Keertan,” Guru jee said. What amazing Warrior Guru jee was! An army of 100,000 are pursuing Guru Sahib and planning to attack the place where they are staying, and Guru Sahib is still blissfully continuing his routine Rehat of Nitnem and Aasa Di Vaar Keertan with all Singhs joining in. Nawab Wazir Khan, announced outside the fort of Chamkaur, “Gobind Singh! If you and your Sikhs come out now, you will be spared!” Guru Sahib replied to this with rain of arrows. There was silence now in the cold morning. Clouds filled the sky and thundered and let out lightening. Guru Jee and the Singhs became ready for the battle.

Preparing for Battle
There was a chill in the air and morning had not yet come. A Mughal messenger came to see Guru Sahib to negotiate with Sikhs. However, Guru Sahib told the messenger to go away or face death. Inside the four walls of the mud-house Guru Sahib declares war.

First one Singh comes out and when he is about to become Shaheed (martyr), he roars the Jaikaaraa (slogan) of “Sat Siree Akaal!” As soon as the sound of “Sat Siree Akaal” echoes from the battlefield, the next Singh comes out to fight in the battleground. The Nawab was astonished at what these Singhs were made of. One Sikh equalled Savaa Lakh (125,000).

Baba Ajeet Singh jee Seeks Permission To Fight
Baba Ajeet Singh jee now goes before Guru Sahib. "Dear father, permit me to go and fight on the battleground and grace me with the oppurtunity to make my life fruitful and worthy in your service.” Guru Gobind Singh jee hugged his beloved son and gave him a Shastr (weapon). A beard or moustache has yet not grown on Baba Ajeet Singh jee’s face, showing how young he was. Every father wants to see their child get married, but this is the time of fighting the enemy. Death is waiting and today Baba Ajeet Singh will be marrying death.

The sun is about to come out. Guru jee saw that Nawab Wazir Khan wants to take hold of the fort of Chamkaur in one go. The Nawab surrounded the fort with his armies. At this time the Singhs did a benti (request) to Guru Sahib that there is no means of escaping the siege, please escape with Sahibzaadey. However the Guru Sahib told them that there is no difference between the Singhs and the Sahibzaadey. “You are all mine! We will be victorious and we will all be free.”

Baba Ajeet Singh roars in the Battlefield
Baba Ajeet Singh jee boldly and valiantly comes out of fort, accompanied with 8 other Singh, which includes one of the original Panj Piaare, Bhai Mohkam Singh jee. Guru jee watches the battle scene from the top of the fort. There is silence on all four sides. As they come into the battleground they roar Jaikaare, which sounds everywhere like a roar of a lion. Today the 8 Singhs feel proud that under the leadership of Baba Ajeet Singh jee they have been blessed with an opportunity to fight alongside Baba Ajeet Singh jee. Baba Ajeet Singh jee advances on the battlefield and shows weaponry skills with great courage and bravery. The army surrounds the Sahibzaada on four sides. Baba Ajeet Singh calls out, “Come nearer if you have guts.” Soldiers run away frightened. Now they come back in a large group. They have no guts to individually fight Baba Ajeet Singh jee.a large group. They have no guts to individually fight Baba Ajeet Singh jee.

The Singhs weaponry skill on the battlefield reminds the Mughal soldiers of Allah, as they fear their lives. While fighting, Baba Ajeet Singh jee’s Kirpan (sword) breaks. He then begins to fight with a Nejaa (spear). However, when killing one Mughal chief the Nejaa became stuck in his chest. But Baba Ajeet Singh jee remained in bliss and peace. While fighting, all 8 Singhs become Shaheed (martyrs). One Mughal chief injured Baba jee’s horse. As a result he fought on the ground with his talwaar (sword). With each blow of the sword, he split the enemy into two. When he strikes the enemy twice with his sword, they are cut up into four pieces. Now the army surrounds Baba jee. Guru jee watches. When Baba jee attains Shaheedi, Guru Sahib roars a Jaikaaraa of “Sat Siree Akaal.”

Baba Jujhar Singh ready for Shaheedi
The news of Baba Ajeet Singh jee attaining Shaheedi (martyrdom) spread. Hearing the news of his brother, Baba Jujhar Singh jee now desired to fight in the battlefield. He asked Guru Sahib, “Permit me, dear father, to go where my brother has gone. Don’t say that I am too young. I am your son; I am a Singh, a Lion, of yours. I shall prove worthy of you. I shall die fighting, with my face towards the enemy, with the Naam on my lips and the Guru in my heart.” Guru Gobind Singh jee embraced him and said, "Go my son and wed life-giving bride, Death.” Guru Sahib gave blessings to Baba Jujhar Singh jee; just a father gives blessings to the bride on the day of her marriage. Guru jee added, “I asked my father to give his life for "dharam" (righteousness and justice). Today, what I told my father, I now tell you.” Bhai Himmat Singh jee and Bhai Sahib Singh jee (two of the original Panj Piaare) along with 3 other Singhs accompanied Sahibzaada Baba Jujhar Singh jee. The Mughals were shocked at what they saw. It looked as if Ajeet Singh has come back.

ਐਸੀ ਮਰਨੀ ਜੋ ਮਰੈ ਬਹੁਰਿ ਨ ਮਰਨਾ ਹੋਇ ॥੧॥
aisee marnee jo marai, bahur na marnaa hoe. 1. Whoever dies, let him die such a death, that he does not have to die again. 1. (Ang 555, SGGS)

Fighting Til The Last Breath
Dead bodies laid everywhere. The army assemble to kill Baba Jujhar Singh jee. He is now surrounded and has a Nejaa (spear) in his hand. Wherever the Nejaa hits, the enemy is destroyed. He also used a Khanda (double-sword), with which he killed the enemy as if a farmer is cutting his crop. Guru jee saw that Baba jee is being surrounded and the opportunity to kill the Mughal soldiers is decreasing. So Guru Sahib sprayed arrows in the air. In the army they call this ‘Protection Fire.’ The person providing Protection Fire must be very skilful and precise because if the target is missed, people on the same side can be killed. Guru Sahib gave Protection Fire with arrows, but none of the 5 singhs or Baba jee were hit or injured by the arrows. Baba jee and the 5 Singhs demonstrated the Sikh concept of one equalling “Savaa Lakh” (125,000).

Baba Jujhar Singh eventually was enabled to break the ring of the Mughal army surrounding him. Baba jee then attained Shaheedi.
ਸੂਰਾ ਸੋ ਪਹਿਚਾਨੀਐ ਜੁ ਲਰੈ ਦੀਨ ਕੇ ਹੇਤ ॥
sooraa so pahichaanee-ai, jo larai deen ke het.
That person alone is known as a spiritual warrior, who fights in defence of religion.

ਪੁਰਜਾ ਪੁਰਜਾ ਕਟਿ ਮਰੈ ਕਬਹੂ ਨ ਛਾਡੈ ਖੇਤੁ ॥੨॥੨॥
purjaa purjaa katt marai, kabhoo na chhaadai khet. 22.
They may be cut apart, piece by piece, but they never leave the field of battle. 22.
(Ang 1105, SGGS)
This is the sign of a true warrior! By the time Baba Jujhar Singh jee had attained Shaheedi nightfall had arrived and the moon could be seen in the sky. Guru Sahib writes in his writing, the Zafarnama:
ਚਿ ਕਸਮੇ ਕੁਰਾਂ ਮਨ ਕੁਨਮ ਏਤਬਾਰ ਵਗਰਨਾ ਤੁ ਗੋਈ ਮਨ ਈਂ ਰਾਹਚਿਕਾਰ
che kasm-e kuraa(n), man kunam eitbaar
vagarnaa tu goee, man ee(n) raah chi-kaar
What trust can I have on your oath on Koran? Otherwise, why should I have taken this path (of taking up the sword)?
(Line 23, Zafarnama)

Leaving Chamkaur Sahib
During the night Bhai Daya Singh jee and Bhai Dharam Singh jee (two of the original Panj Piaare) along with Bhai Maan Singh jee and other singhs remain in the fort of Chamkaur Sahib. There were a total of 10 Singhs left. Now the Guru-roop Panj Piaare (Five Singhs) gave Hukam to Guru Sahib to leave the fort. Guru Sahib accepted the decision of the 'Guru Khalsa'. Before Guru Sahib left the Garhi of Chamkaur, he put his dress and his Kalgee (plume) on Bhai Sangat Singh jee, who looked very much like Guru Sahib. The Mughals thought they were fighting the Guru, while Guru Sahib escaped after challenging them. Guru Sahib did not leave quietly. On leaving, Guru Sahib blew his horn and stood on high ground and clapped his hands three times saying “Peeré Hind Rahaavat” (“The "Peer" of India is Leaving”).

Guru jee along with the Bhai Daya Singh jee and Bhai Dharam Singh jee left the garhi at night, leaving Bhai Sangat Singh jee and a few others behind. They were told to keep the army engaged the next day when the fighting restarts. In the morning when the army attacked the Sikhs they were ready to defend themselves. Finally when all Sikhs fell fighting, the enemy soldiers entered the Garhi. The Mughal commanders were overjoyed to see the dead body of Bhai Sangat Singh jee because they mistook him for Guru jee. Later, when more people were shown the dead body, they identified it not to be that of Guru Gobind Singh jee. The commanders felt ashamed of their failure to kill or capture Guru Sahib.

Shaheedaa(n) Nu Lakh Lakh Parnaam.
We salute those who died for our today and died fighting for Dharam.

You can download the Zafarnama, written by Guru Gobind Singh jee below:
(note: Guru jee writes about the Battle of Chamkaur Sahib on pg. 7)

Please forgive me for any mistakes made when writing this.

Finally Updated

I know it has been a long time since I updated the blog. Here is a nice story I found on Manvir Singh Khalsa's blog:

The Secret of Life

Have you read this before?
Discover the 90/10 Principle. It will change your life(at least the way you react to situations). What is this principle?

10% of life is made up of what happens to you. 90% of life is decided by how you react. What does this mean?

We really have no control over 10% of what happens to us. We cannot stop the car from breaking down. The plane will be late arriving, which throws our whole schedule off. A driver may cut us off in traffic. We have no control over this 10%. The other 90% is different. You determine the other 90%.

How? By your reaction. You cannot control a red light., but you can control your reaction. Don't let people fool you; YOU can control how you react.

Let's use an example.
You are eating breakfast with your family. Your daughter knocks over a cup of coffee onto your business shirt. You have no control over what just what happened. What happens when the next will be determined by how you react.You curse. You harshly s'cold your daughter for knocking the cup over.

She breaks down in tears. After s'colding her, you turn to your spouse and criticize her for placing the cup too close to the edge of the table. A short verbal battle follows. You storm upstairs and change your shirt. Back downstairs, you find your daughter has been too busy crying to finish breakfast and get ready for school. She misses the bus. Your spouse must leave immediately for work.

You rush to the car and drive your daughter to school. Because you are late, you drive 40 miles an hour in a 30 mph speed limit. After a 15-minute delay and throwing $60 traffic fine away, you arrive at school. Your daughter runs into the building without saying goodbye. After arriving at the office 20 minutes late, you find you forgot your briefcase. Your day has started terrible. As it continues, it seems to get worse and worse. You look forward to coming home, When you arrive home, you find small wedge in your relationship with your spouse and daughter.

Why? Because of how you reacted in the morning. Why did you have a bad day?

A) Did the coffee cause it?
B) Did your daughter cause it?
C) Did the policeman cause it?
D) Did you cause it?

The answer is " D".

You had no control over what happened with the coffee.

How you reacted in those 5 seconds is what caused your bad day. Here is what could have and should have happened.

Coffee splashes over you. Your daughter is about to cry. You gently say, "It's ok honey, you just need, to be more careful next time". Grabbing a towel you rush upstairs. After grabbing a new shirt and your briefcase, you come back down in time to look through the window and see your child getting on the bus. She turns and waves. You arrive 5 minutes early and cheerfully greet the staff. Your boss comments on how good the day you are having.

Notice the difference?
Two different scenarios. Both started the same. Both ended different.

Why? Because of how you REACTED. You really do not have any control over 10% of what happens. The other 90% was determined by your reaction.

Here are some ways to apply the 90/10 principle. If someone says something negative about you, don't be a sponge. Let the attack roll off like water on glass. You don't have to let the negative comment affect you! React properly and it will not ruin your day. A wrong reaction could result in losing a friend, being fired, getting stressed out etc.

How do you react if someone cuts you off in traffic?
Do you lose your temper? Pound on the steering wheel?
A friend of mine had the steering wheel fall off)
Do you curse?
Does your blood pressure skyrocket?
Do you try and bump them?
WHO CARES if you arrive ten seconds later at work? Why let the cars ruin your drive? Remember the 90/10 principle, and do not worry about it.

You are told you lost your job. Why lose sleep and get irritated? It will work out. Use your worrying energy and time into finding another job.The plane is late; it is going to mangle your schedule for the day. Why take out your frustration on the flight attendant? She has no control over what is going on. Use your time to study, get to know the other passenger. Why get stressed out? It will just make things worse. Now you know the 90-10 principle. Apply it and you will be amazed at the results. You will lose nothing if you try it.

The 90-10 principle is incredible. Very few know and apply this principle.

The result? Millions of people are suffering from undeserved stress, trials, problems and heartache.

We all must understand and apply the 90/10 principle.

It CAN change your life!!!